Human brain organoids assemble functionally integrated bilateral optic vesicles – ScienceDirect

During embryogenesis, optic vesicles develop from the diencephalon via a multistep process of organogenesis. Using induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived human brain organoids, we attempted to simplify the complexities and demonstrate formation of forebrain-associated bilateral optic vesicles, cellular diversity, and functionality. Around day 30, brain organoids attempt to assemble optic vesicles, which develop progressively as visible structures within 60 days. These optic vesicle-containing brain organoids (OVB-organoids) constitute a developing optic vesicle’s cellular components, including primitive corneal epithelial and lens-like cells, retinal pigment epithelia, retinal progenitor cells, axon-like projections, and electrically active neuronal networks. OVB-organoids also display synapsin-1, CTIP-positive myelinated cortical neurons, and microglia. Interestingly, various light intensities could trigger photosensitive activity of OVB-organoids, and light sensitivities could be reset after transient photobleaching. Thus, brain organoids have the intrinsic ability to self-organize forebrain-associated primitive sensory structures in a topographically restricted manner and can allow interorgan interaction studies within a single organoid.
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New study provides clues to decades-old mystery about cell movement | NSF – National Science Foundation

A new study led by University of Minnesota Twin Cities researchers shows that the stiffness of protein fibers in tissues like collagen, is a key component in controlling the movement of cells. The U.S. National Science Foundation-funded discovery could have a major impact on fields that study cell movement, from regenerative medicine to cancer research.

The research is published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences .
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Unlock your backyard bug brain.

Introduction to the Insect Key
The key is adapted from Oldroyd (1958) and Chinery (1993), and provides a first step towards identifying an insect specimen. However, due to the range of variation within many insect Orders, it is impossible to cover all contingencies and the key will not track down unusual and difficult species. For these you will need to consult a reference book of entomology or scan through the listing and descriptions of insect Orders on this site.

Insect Identification

Key to the main Orders of Insects – Part 1, Part 2 Part 3Part 4Part 5: Main


Insect Body-parts

A brief guide to the main external features of insects and the terminology used to describe the various body-parts.



Discover Life | All living things | Insect orders
Discover Life Insect Order determination chart

This simple key is not meant to take the place of a comprehensive identification key. It is provided as a reference to compare some, not all, of the insect orders.
Tips: Only adult arthropods are included, and certain uncommon orders are not included. To use a key, read both descriptions in a couplet (for instance, 1a and 1b). Decide which sounds most like your critter, and move to the next couplet indicated. Should you reach a dead-end, use the numbers in parentheses to backtrack until you reach a couplet that you felt unsure about, and try following the other path. Some orders are found more than once in the keys, because the arthropods occur in different forms.