Observation-based early-warning signals for a collapse of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation | Nature Climate Change

The Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC), a major ocean current system transporting warm surface waters toward the northern Atlantic, has been suggested to exhibit two distinct modes of operation. A collapse from the currently attained strong to the weak mode would have severe impacts on the global climate system and further multi-stable Earth system components. Observations and recently suggested fingerprints of AMOC variability indicate a gradual weakening during the last decades, but estimates of the critical transition point remain uncertain. Here, a robust and general early-warning indicator for forthcoming critical transitions is introduced. Significant early-warning signals are found in eight independent AMOC indices, based on observational sea-surface temperature and salinity data from across the Atlantic Ocean basin. These results reveal spatially consistent empirical evidence that, in the course of the last century, the AMOC may have evolved from relatively stable conditions to a point close to a critical transition. The Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) is currently strong, but transition to its weak mode could see significant changes in the climate system. This work presents an observation-based early-warning system for such transitions and shows that the AMOC may be approaching a transition.
— Read on www.nature.com/articles/s41558-021-01097-4.epdf

Climate crisis: Scientists spot warning signs of Gulf Stream collapse | Climate change | The Guardian

A shutdown would have devastating global impacts and must not be allowed to happen, researchers say
— Read on www.theguardian.com/environment/2021/aug/05/climate-crisis-scientists-spot-warning-signs-of-gulf-stream-collapse

The 2021 Met Gala Is Going Plant-Based—Here’s Why | Bon Appétit

Yes, people eat at the Met Gala. And for the first-time ever, the food will be chef-curated and 100% plant-based.
— Read on www.bonappetit.com/story/met-gala-chefs-2021

Trump Pressed Justice Dept. to Declare Election Results Corrupt, Notes Show – The New York Times

“Leave the rest to me” and to congressional allies, the former president is said to have told top law enforcement officials.
— Read on www.nytimes.com/2021/07/30/us/politics/trump-justice-department-election.html

Turkey Conducting Targeted Killings of PKK Leaders in Iraq: What’s Next? – Jamestown

Turkey Conducting Targeted Killings of PKK Leaders in Iraq: What’s Next? – Jamestown
— Read on jamestown.org/program/turkey-conducting-targeted-killings-of-pkk-leaders-in-iraq-whats-next/

Reconceptualizing Lithuania’s Importance for U.S. Foreign Policy – Foreign Policy Research Institute

This report is part of FPRI’s collaboration with Eastern Europe Studies Centre in Vilnius, Lithuania and can also be viewed here
— Read on www.fpri.org/article/2021/07/reconceptualizing-lithuanias-importance-for-u-s-foreign-policy/

Biden Meets Exiled Belarusian Opposition Sviatlana Tsikhanouskaya – Bloomberg

President Joe Biden met the exiled opposition leader of Belarus, Sviatlana Tsikhanouskaya, at the White House Wednesday as the post-Soviet nation is swept by a new round of crackdowns against the opposition, media and civil society.
— Read on www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2021-07-28/biden-meets-exiled-belarusian-opposition-leader-to-show-support

The Indigenous Archaeologist Looking for Residential School Graves in Canada – The New York Times

Kisha Supernant has brought radar technology to the search for burial sites in Canada while she works to reshape her profession’s relationship with Indigenous communities.
— Read on www.nytimes.com/2021/07/30/world/canada/indigenous-archaeologist-graves-school-children.html

Neanderthals Hunted with Leaf-Shaped Spears, Archaeologists Say | Archaeology, Paleoanthropology | Sci-News.com

The artifact is 7.6 cm (3 inches) long, 4.1 cm (1.6 inches) wide, 0.9 cm (0.35 inches) thick, and has a mass of 28 grams.

“Our results document how the tool was made, used and why it was discarded,” Professor Conard said.

“Thanks to a series of four ESR-dates the find is securely dated to over 65,000 years ago.”

“Until now finds of leaf points were interpreted as belonging to the period between 45,000 and 55,000 years ago — the last cultural phase of Neanderthals in Central Europe,” he added.

“The new results demonstrate that our assumptions about the dating of the cultural groups of the late Neanderthals were wrong and need revision.”

Using detailed microscopic analyses, the researchers found that the leaf point was mounted on a wooden shaft.

“Damage to the tip indicates that the artifact was used as a hafted spear point, and that the spear was likely thrust into prey rather than being thrown,” they said.

“Neanderthals used plant-based glue and bindings made from plant fibers, sinew, or leather, to secure the leaf point to the spear.”

“They clearly used the spear for hunting. While they re-sharpened the tool it broke, leading to its discard.”
— Read on www.sci-news.com/archaeology/hohle-fels-leaf-point-09905.html